History of Indonesian literature

Posted: July 31, 2007 in History of Literature, Indonesian Author, Indonesian Literature

Indonesian literature refers to written or literary works produced in Indonesia. The works, which are transmitted orally, can be seen in the article Oral tradition of Indonesia.

During its early history, Indonesia was the centre of trade among sailors and traders from China, India, Europe and the middle east. Indonesia was then the colony of the Netherland and Japan. Therefore its literary tradition was influented by these cultures. However, unique Indonesian charcteristics cause it to be considered as a separate path and tradition.

Chronologically Indonesian literature could be divided into several periods:


Pujangga Lama

The early Indonesian literature was dominated by malay literature, which reflects its origin. The literature produced by the Pujangga lama (literally means the old poets) was mainly written before the 20th century. These works were dominated with syair, pantun, gurindam and hikayat. Some of these works are:

  • Sejarah Melayu
  • Hikayat Abdullah, Hikayat Andaken Penurat, Hikayat Bayan Budiman, Hikayat Djahidin, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hikayat Kadirun, Hikayat Kalila dan Damina, Hikayat Masydulhak, Hikayat Pandja Tanderan, Hikayat Putri Djohar Manikam, Hikayat Tjendera Hasan, Tsahibul Hikayat.
  • Syair Bidasari, Syair Ken Tambuhan, Syair Raja Mambang Jauhari, Syair Raja Siak.

Sastra “Melayu Lama”
The literature of this period was produced from the year 1870 until 1942. The works from this period were predominantly popular among the people in Sumatra (i.e. the regions of Langkat, Tapanuli, Padang, etc.), the Chinese and the Indo-European. The first works were dominated by syair, hikayat and translations of western novels. These are:

* Robinson Crusoe (translation)
* Lawan-lawan Merah
* Mengelilingi Bumi dalam 80 hari (translation)
* Graaf de Monte Cristo (translation)
* Kapten Flamberger (translation)
* Rocambole (translation)
* Nyai Dasima by G. Francis (Indonesian)
* Bunga Rampai by A.F van Dewall
* Kisah Perjalanan Nakhoda Bontekoe
* Kisah Pelayaran ke Pulau Kalimantan
* Kisah Pelayaran ke Makassar dan lain-lainnya
* Cerita Siti Aisyah by H.F.R Kommer (Indonesian)
* Cerita Nyi Paina
* Cerita Nyai Sarikem
* Cerita Nyonya Kong Hong Nio
* Nona Leonie
* Warna Sari Melayu by Kat S.J
* Cerita Si Conat by F.D.J. Pangemanan
* Cerita Rossina
* Nyai Isah by F. Wiggers
* Drama Raden Bei Surioretno
* Syair Java Bank Dirampok
* Lo Fen Kui by Gouw Peng Liang
* Cerita Oey See by Thio Tjin Boen
* Tambahsia
* Busono by R.M.Tirto Adhi Soerjo
* Nyai Permana
* Hikayat Siti Mariah by Hadji Moekti (Indonesian)

Angkatan Balai Pustaka
During this period, Indonesian literature was dominated with novels, short stories, dramas and poetries, which gradually replace syair, gurindam, pantun and hikayat. These works are mostly published by Balai Pustaka, giving this period its name. Balai Pustaka was established to stop the negative influence of many literature, which are written during that time. Many of those literature were pornographic and have somehow political background. From 1920 to 1950 Balai Pustaka published many works in high malay language, Javanese language and Sundanese language, some are also published in Balinese, Batak or Maduranese language.

Authors and works of Balai Pustaka

* Merari Siregar
o Azab dan Sengsara: kissah kehidoepan seorang gadis (1921)
o Binasa kerna gadis Priangan! (1931)
o Tjinta dan Hawa Nafsu

* Marah Roesli
o Siti Nurbaya
o La Hami
o Anak dan Kemenakan

* Nur Sutan Iskandar
o Apa Dayaku Karena Aku Seorang Perempuan
o Hulubalang Raja (1961)
o Karena Mentua (1978)
o Katak Hendak Menjadi Lembu (1935)

* Abdul Muis
o Pertemuan Djodoh (1964)
o Salah Asuhan
o Surapati (1950)

* Tulis Sutan Sati
o Sengsara Membawa Nikmat (1928)
o Tak Disangka
o Tak Membalas Guna
o Memutuskan Pertalian (1978)

* Aman Datuk Madjoindo
o Menebus Dosa (1964)
o Si Tjebol Rindoekan Boelan (1934)
o Sampaikan Salamku Kepadanya

* Suman Hs.
o Kasih Ta’ Terlarai (1961)
o Mentjari Pentjuri Anak Perawan (1957)
o Pertjobaan Setia (1940)

* Adinegoro
o Darah Muda
o Asmara Jaya

* Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana
o Tak Putus Dirundung Malang
o Dian jang Tak Kundjung Padam (1948)
o Anak Perawan Di Sarang Penjamun (1963)

* Hamka
o Di Bawah Lindungan Ka’bah (1938)
o Tenggelamnya Kapal van der Wijck (1957)
o Tuan Direktur (1950)
o Didalam Lembah Kehidoepan (1940)

* Anak Agung Pandji Tisna
o Ni Rawit Ceti Penjual Orang (1975)
o Sukreni Gadis Bali (1965)
o I Swasta Setahun di Bedahulu (1966)

* Said Daeng Muntu
o Pembalasan
o Karena Kerendahan Boedi (1941)

* Marius Ramis Dayoh
o Pahlawan Minahasa (1957)
o Putra Budiman: Tjeritera Minahasa (1951)

* Pujangga Baru
* Generation 45 (Angkatan ’45)
* Generation 50 (Angkatan 50-an)
* Generation 66 until Generation 70 (Angkatan 66-70-an)
* Generation 80 (Dasawarsa 80-an)
* Reformation period (Angkatan Reformasi)

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Comments
  1. natasha says:

    ok..i have learned..i never thought robinson crusoe was an indonesian literature i already read it’s story..:p

  2. princess says:

    hi..i hope that your topics are complete unlike this one!!

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